Plastic barrel hollow blow can be divided into two categories: Extrusion blow molding and injection blow molding. The main difference between the two lies in the preparation of the blank, and then the blow molding process is the same. On the basis of these two methods to carry out: Extrusion stretch blow molding (abbreviated as extrusion blow), injection stretch blow molding (short note – pull – blow) and multilayer reflection. Injection blow molding (note – blowing) plastic bottle adopts the injection molding the plastic bottom slab, the parison while hot moved to blow mold, blow molding hollow products. Note – blowing hollow container with no flash, good dimensional stability, excellent quality of the bottle mouth and the thread, the parison thickness can be pre conditioning, good luster of products, save raw materials. However, injection blow molding is not suitable for large and complex consumption of the container, but also because of the use of injection and blow molding two deputy mold, so the equipment investment is relatively large. Note – blowing hollow container outside shaped cylinder single small bottle body mainly, it can use a variety of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene, polyester, polyamide resin consumption. Mainly used in medicine, food, cosmetics packaging for blow molding hollow plastic are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polystyrene, linear polyester, polycarbonate, polyamide, cellulose acetate and poly acetal resin etc.. High density polyethylene in the first place. It is widely used in food, chemical industry and the disposal of liquid packaging. High molecular weight polyethylene is suitable for manufacturing large fuel tanks and barrels and other white spirit. PVC because of its good transparency and tightness, so in terms of packaging of cosmetics and washing agent get widely used. With the development of non-toxic PVC resin and additives, and stretch blow molding technology development, PVC container in the food packaging quantity rapid increase, and have begun to beer and the other containing carbon dioxide gas beverage packaging. Linear polyester material is a new type of information in the field of hollow blow molding in recent years. Advantages due to its products with a shiny appearance and excellent transparency, high mechanical strength and container goods keep good, burning of waste disposal, polluting the environment, so in terms of packaging bottle carry out very quickly, especially in the aspect of pressure resistant plastic food containers is the most widely used. Due to the modification of the resin and the improvement of the processing technology, the application of PP has increased year by year.
主要原料及典型配方Main raw materials and typical formula
（ l ）聚乙烯 普通选用熔体指数为 l ～ 6 的聚乙烯树脂。
Polyethylene resin with L ~ 6 melt index.
（ 2 ）聚丙烯 普通选网熔体指数为 2 一 4 的聚丙烯树脂。
Polypropylene, polypropylene, 4, 2.
（ 3 ）聚苯乙烯 普通选用通用型或抗冲型的注射级聚苯乙烯树脂。
Polystyrene resin with general purpose or anti punching type for polystyrene.
（ 4 ）聚氯乙烯硬质透明瓶配方 。
Rigid PVC transparent bottle formula.
塑料桶生产的主要设备及特性Main equipment and characteristics of plastic bucket
（ 1 ）挤出机与机头 与普通挤－吹法的设备根本相同。
The extruder and the die are basically the same as the common extrusion blowing method.
（ 2 ）型坯处置安装 由挤出机挤出的管状型坯，要经过该安装停止切断、底部熔合与颈部加工，制成试管状有底型坯。
Installation of parison disposal by extruding a tubular billet, after the installation of the stop cut, at the bottom of the fusion and neck processing, made of tube shaped bottom of the parison.
（ 3 ）型坯加热安装 型坯加热安装有烘箱、加热套筒、加热通道等多种，加热方式可用电加热或红外线加热。但加热安装要能调温并平衡地加热，使型坯内外温差尽量减小。
The heating installation of the heating installation of the heating and heating installation of the heating installation is provided with an oven, a heating sleeve, a heating channel, etc., and the heating mode can be heated by electric heating or infrared heating.
（ 4 ）拉伸安装 有拉伸芯棒和拉伸夹具两种。
nstallation of the mandrel and the tensile tensile tensile fixture two.
① 拉伸芯棒 拉伸芯棒从型坯上部插入，在液压作用下顶住型坯底部，停止纵向拉伸，然后芯棒上的气孔通入紧缩空气吹胀，停止径向拉伸。多数拉伸成型都采用这种拉伸安装。
Drawing mandrel Drawing mandrel is inserted from the upper part of the type blank, in under the action of hydraulic withstand parison bottom, stop the longitudinal tensile, and the mandrel air vent into the compressed air blown, stop the radial tensile. Most stretch forming is used in this kind of tension installation.
② 拉伸夹具 拉伸夹具从外部夹往管状型坯的两端，在液压作用下停止纵向拉伸，然后再吹胀停止径向拉伸。颈部与底部都有飞边需求修整，飞边经破碎可回收应用。
Tension clamp The tension clamp is clamped from the outside to the two ends of the tubular shaped blank, and the longitudinal tension is stopped under the action of hydraulic pressure, and then the radial tension is stopped. At the neck and at the bottom, there is a need to trim the fly edge.
（ 5 ）挤－拉－吹专用成型机 国外有多种型式与规格的挤－拉－吹专用成型机，目前国内尚无此专用设备
Squeeze – pull – blow molding machine Abroad there are a variety of types and specifications of the squeeze – pull – blow molding machine, there is no domestic special equipment
塑料桶生产工艺Plastic barrel production process
Injection blow molding is made up of two processes of injection molding and blow molding products, and the injection molding process is the key to the whole process of consumption.
（ 1 ）注塑型坯的工艺控制Process control of injection molding
① 注塑温度 注射温度与原资料的种类和特性，注塑机的类型及制品厚度等要素有关。对结晶性树脂，如聚乙烯、聚丙烯等，注射温度应高于其熔点。对无定形聚合物，如聚苯乙烯、聚氯乙烯，注射温度要高于其粘流温度。熔体批数低的树脂比熔体指数高的树脂注射温度要高一些。运用柱塞式注塑机比螺杆式注塑机加工温度要高一些。薄壁型坯比厚壁型坯所需求的注射温度高。普通聚苯乙烯的注射温度为 140℃ ～ 240℃ ，聚乙烯为 150℃ ～ 280℃ ，聚丙烯为 205℃ ～ 285℃ ，聚氯乙烯为 160℃ ～ 190℃ 。注射模具温度普通为 40℃ ～ 80℃ 。
Injection temperature Injection temperature and the types and characteristics of raw materials, the type of injection molding machine and the thickness of the products, etc.. For crystalline resin, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, injection temperature should be higher than its melting point. For amorphous polymers, such as polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride, the injection temperature is higher than the viscosity of the polymer. The resin with a low number of melt batches is higher than that of the melt index. The use of plunger type injection molding machine than the screw type injection molding machine processing temperature is higher. The high injection temperature of the thin wall blank is higher than that of the thick wall slab. The injection temperature of the ordinary polystyrene is 140 degrees Celsius to 240 degrees Celsius, the polyethylene is 150 to 280 degrees Celsius, the polypropylene is 205 to 285 degrees Celsius, and the polyvinyl chloride is 160 to 190 degrees Celsius. Injection mold temperature is 40 C to 80 C.
② 注射压力 普通树脂的熔体指数低、型坯壁薄，请求注射压力较高，反之较低。柱塞式注塑机比螺杆式注塑机需求的压力高。在保证产质量量的状况下，尽可能采用较低的注射压力。普通聚苯乙烯的注射压力为 58.8 ～ 107.9MPa ，聚乙烯为 58.8 ～ 98.06MPa ，聚丙烯为 54.9 ～ 98.06MPa ，聚氯乙烯为 78.4 ～ 127.5MPa 。
Injection pressure The melt index of the common resin is low, the shape of the blank wall is thin, the pressure of the injection is higher, and the lower the pressure is relatively low. Plunger type injection molding machine than the screw type injection molding machine high pressure. Under the condition of ensuring the quality of production, as far as possible, the use of lower injection pressure. The injection pressure of ordinary polystyrene is 58.8 ~ 107.9MPa, the PE is 58.8 ~ 98.06MPa, the polypropylene is 54.9 ~ 98.06MPa, and the polyvinyl chloride is 78.4 ~ 127.5MPa.
（ 2 ）吹塑的工艺控制与挤－吹成型的吹塑工艺根本相同。
Process control of blow molding and extrusion blow molding process is the same
主要设备及特性Main equipment and characteristics
（ 1 ）型坯注射机 与普通注塑机的结构根本相同，但注射压力较低，螺杆长径比可小一些，紧缩比也不宜过大。
Injection molding machine With ordinary injection molding machine structure are basically the same, but lower injection pressure, screw length diameter ratio of the smaller, tightening than also shoulds not be too big.
（ 2 ）模具 包括注射模具与吹塑模具。注塑型坯的模具与普通注塑模具的资料与加工请求根本相同，但芯模必需是中空的，以便通入紧缩空气。吹塑模具与挤－吹成型模具根本相同。
mould Including injection mold and blow mold. The information of the injection mould and the common injection mold is the same as the processing request, but the core must be hollow so that the air can be compressed into the air. Blow mould and extrusion blow molding die is the same.
（ 3 ）脱模安装 与挤－吹成型不同，吹塑过程完成后，翻开吹塑模具，将带着成型制品的芯模送至脱膜安装，由脱模板将制品与芯模分开。
Stripping installation And extrusion blow molding is different, blow molding process is completed, open blow mold, will be with molded products to the core die to be sent to the installation, from the template will be separated from the mold and core modules.
Injection blow plastic bottles there is no national standards and ministerial standards, product specifications can refer to polyethylene blow moulding barrel specification and make necessary corrections. But in the same kind of raw material, the performance of the injection blowing hollow container is better than that of the extrusion blow hollow container.
大型中空容器普通指容积在 50L 以上的各种塑制桶体、罐体、贮槽、箱体等大型中空制品。原料以聚乙烯树脂为主，成型工艺主要为挤出－吹塑法和旋转成型法。
A large hollow container generally refers to the volume of various plastic barrels in more than 50L of body, tank, storage tank, tank and other large hollow products. The main material of the raw material is polyethylene resin, and the molding process is extrusion blow molding method and rotary molding method.
Extrusion blow molding of large containers is the same as the plastic bucket, only a slight difference in raw materials and equipment.
Main raw material request Consumption of plastic barrels of ordinary low density polyethylene resin or high, low density polyethylene resin mixture mainly, and the consumption of large containers, high density polyethylene and high molecular weight polyethylene resin.
Main equipment and characteristics The consumption of large container extrusion blow molding machine and installation and equipment of the consumption of plastic barrels of the same, but should be in the extrusion machine barrel and the head is additionally arranged between the stocker. Because the large size of the product is also very large, if the extruder is slow to extrusion, the shape of the slab will be a serious cause of the weight of the vertical extension phenomenon, the formation of the vertical wall thickness of the product is not uniform. At the same time, because of long extrusion time, so that the type of billet due to cooling and warm crossing is too low, it will affect the quality of blow molding. Added stocker after installation, extruding machine, the molten material continuous to squeeze into the reservoir feeder, when storage material reaches a certain amount, namely pressure feeding installation fast material extrusion, average thickness, temperature appropriate parison. Thus additional stocker can not only reduce the parison vertical extension, adhere to the parison temperature, can use smaller extruder products of large consumption.
塑料桶产品标准Plastic barrel product standard
挤出－吹塑大型中空容器目前尚无国、部标准，可参照 GB 13508 一 92 聚乙烯吹塑桶标准作必要的修正。 PETP 软饮料瓶执行 QB1868 一 93 标准。
Extrusion blow molding large hollow containers at present there is no country, the Department of standards, can refer to GB 13508 a 92 polyethylene blow molding barrels standard for the necessary amendments. PETP soft drink bottles to perform QB1868 a 93 standard.
Extrusion stretch blow molding (abbreviated as extrusion blow) Plastic bottle is first by extrusion method tubular preforms made of resin, and the bottom of the parison formation of the bottom of the fusion, and the parison processing to the ideal tensile temperature of plastic. The mechanical force of the internal (drawing mandrel) or external (tensile fixture) of the longitudinal tensile and at the same time or later by compressed air blown radial stretching of the hollow products. After biaxial stretching, the plastic is re oriented, so the impact toughness, low temperature strength, transparency, surface gloss, rigidity and barrier properties are obviously improved and improved. In addition, the thickness of the wall of the product after stretching can be reduced, which can save the material and reduce the cost. Currently used for production push pull blowing plastic hollow container is mainly PVC and PP, products mainly to small, thin-walled bottle for packaging of food, beverages, cosmetics, daily chemical products and so on.
Squeeze – blowing is divided into one – step and two – step two. One step process of making, drawing, blow molding in one device for continuous, also known as hot billet method. Two – step process in the production of the time, location and equipment, and heating, stretching, blow molding separately, also known as cold billet method.
Main raw materials and typical formula The requirements for polypropylene resin and the formulation of the PVC container are all the same as that of the extrusion blow molded containers.
Consumption technology Squeeze – pull – blow method in the extrusion and blow molding process control, and extrusion blow method is the same. The following focus on the process of drawing control.
（ 1 ）拉伸温度 控制适合的拉伸温度是停止双轴拉伸的关键，否则将起不到使塑料分子重新定向排列的目的。对非结晶性的聚氯乙烯来说，如采用一步法，型坯即可从挤出时的 190℃ ～ 200℃ 宜接冷却到 90℃ ～ 100℃ ，停止拉伸与吹塑。这时比它的玻璃化温度高出 10℃ ～ 20℃ ，是最理想的拉伸温度。对结晶性的聚丙烯来说，如采用一步法，型坯要借助有效的冷却。
Stretching temperature The control of suitable stretching temperature is the key to stop the biaxial tension, otherwise it will not be the purpose of the re orientation of plastic molecules. For the non crystalline polyvinyl chloride, such as the use of one step, the billet can be extruded from 190 to 200 degrees Celsius to 90 degrees Celsius to be cooled to 100 degrees Celsius to degrees Celsius, stop stretching and blow. At this time than the glass temperature of 10 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius, is the most ideal drawing temperature. For the crystallization of polypropylene, such as the use of one step, the shape of the billet to the aid of effective cooling.
从挤出时的 210℃ ～ 230℃ 疾速冷却至 90℃ ～ 105℃ 之间的结晶温度，抑止球晶的构成，然后再加热到玻璃化温度与熔点温度之间的 150℃ ～ 160℃ 停止双轴拉伸。不管聚氯乙烯还是聚丙烯，假如采用二步法，都需求对事前制成的型坯重新加热到各自的拉伸温度，再停止拉伸和吹塑。
From extrusion of 210 DEG C to 230 DEG C, cooled quickly to 90 DEG C ~ 105 DEG C between the crystallization temperature, restrain the spherulites, and then heated to between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of 150 DEG C to 160 DEG C to stop the biaxial tensile. Whether polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene, if the use of the two step, the need for pre made to re heating of the preform to the respective tensile temperature, and then stop stretching and blow.
（ 2 ）拉伸倍率 除了拉伸温度等条件外，双轴拉伸制品的分子定向状态是由拉伸倍率决议的，因而拉伸倍率决议着制品性能的改良。拉伸倍率是拉伸比与吹胀比的乘积，拉伸比是制品长度与型坯长度之比，也就是纵向拉伸率。吹胀比是制品最大直径与型坯直径之比，也就是径向拉伸率。拉伸倍率过低，起不到分子重新定向和改善制品性能的作用。拉伸倍率过高，则会惹起资料损坯并使加工条件不易控制。普通聚氯乙烯的拉伸倍率取 4 ～ 6 ，聚丙烯取 6 ～ 10 。
draft ratio In addition to the conditions of tensile temperature, the molecular orientation state of the biaxial tension product is determined by the stretching ratio, and the drawing rate is determined to improve the performance of the product. The drawing ratio is the product of the ratio of the tension to the blowing ratio, the ratio of the length to the length of the billet, and the ratio of the length to the length of the billet. Blowing ratio is the ratio of the maximum diameter of the product and the diameter of the blank, which is the radial tensile rate. Low drawing ratio is too low to play the role of molecular reorientation and improve the performance of products. The drawing ratio is too high, it will cause the material damage and make the processing condition is not easy to control. The drawing ratio of ordinary polyvinyl chloride was 4 ~ 6, and the polypropylene was 6 ~ 10.