Hollow Blow Molding Process Diagram

塑料桶中空吹塑根本上能够分为两大类:挤出—吹塑和注射—吹塑。两者的主要不同点在于型坯的制备,然后的吹塑过程根本相同。在这两种成型办法的根底上开展起来的有:挤出—拉伸—吹塑(简称挤—拉—吹),注射—拉伸—吹塑(简称注—拉—吹)以及多层映塑等。注射-吹塑(简称注-吹)塑料瓶是采用注射成型法先将塑料制成有底型坯,再把型坯趁热移到吹塑模中吹塑成型的中空制品。注-吹中空容器没有飞边,尺寸稳定性好,瓶口与螺纹质量优良,型坯厚度可预先调理,制品光泽度好,俭省原料。但注-吹成型不合适消费大型和外形复杂的容器,又由于要运用注射和吹塑两副模具,所以设备投资较大。注-吹中空容器以外形筒单的小型瓶体为主,它能够用聚氯乙烯、聚乙烯、聚丙烯和聚苯乙烯、聚酯、聚酰胺等多种树脂来消费。主要用于医药、食品、化装品等的包装用于中空吹塑的塑料种类有聚乙烯、聚氯乙烯、聚丙烯、聚苯乙烯、线形聚酯、聚碳酸酯、聚酰胺、醋酸纤维素和聚缩醛树脂等。其中高密度聚乙烯的耗费量占首位。它普遍应用于食品、化工和处置液体的包装。高分子量聚乙烯适用于制造大型燃料醝罐和桶等。聚氯乙烯由于有较好的透明度和气密性,所以在化装品和洗濯剂的包装方面得到普遍应用。随着无毒聚氯乙烯树脂和助剂的开发,以及拉伸吹塑技术的开展,聚氯乙烯容器在食品包装方面的用量疾速增加,并且曾经开端用于啤酒和其它含有二氧化碳气体饮料的包装。线形聚酯资料是近几年进入中空吹塑范畴的新型资料。由于其制品具有光泽的外观、优秀的透明性、较高的力学强度和容器内物品保管性较好,废弃物燃烧处置时不污染环境等方面的优点,所以在包装瓶方面开展很快,特别在耐压塑料食品容器方面的运用最为普遍。聚丙烯因其树脂的改性和加工技术的进步,运用量也逐年增加。

Plastic barrel hollow blow can be divided into two categories: Extrusion blow molding and injection blow molding. The main difference between the two lies in the preparation of the blank, and then the blow molding process is the same. On the basis of these two methods to carry out: Extrusion stretch blow molding (abbreviated as extrusion blow), injection stretch blow molding (short note – pull – blow) and multilayer reflection. Injection blow molding (note – blowing) plastic bottle adopts the injection molding the plastic bottom slab, the parison while hot moved to blow mold, blow molding hollow products. Note – blowing hollow container with no flash, good dimensional stability, excellent quality of the bottle mouth and the thread, the parison thickness can be pre conditioning, good luster of products, save raw materials. However, injection blow molding is not suitable for large and complex consumption of the container, but also because of the use of injection and blow molding two deputy mold, so the equipment investment is relatively large. Note – blowing hollow container outside shaped cylinder single small bottle body mainly, it can use a variety of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene, polyester, polyamide resin consumption. Mainly used in medicine, food, cosmetics packaging for blow molding hollow plastic are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polystyrene, linear polyester, polycarbonate, polyamide, cellulose acetate and poly acetal resin etc.. High density polyethylene in the first place. It is widely used in food, chemical industry and the disposal of liquid packaging. High molecular weight polyethylene is suitable for manufacturing large fuel tanks and barrels and other white spirit. PVC because of its good transparency and tightness, so in terms of packaging of cosmetics and washing agent get widely used. With the development of non-toxic PVC resin and additives, and stretch blow molding technology development, PVC container in the food packaging quantity rapid increase, and have begun to beer and the other containing carbon dioxide gas beverage packaging. Linear polyester material is a new type of information in the field of hollow blow molding in recent years. Advantages due to its products with a shiny appearance and excellent transparency, high mechanical strength and container goods keep good, burning of waste disposal, polluting the environment, so in terms of packaging bottle carry out very quickly, especially in the aspect of pressure resistant plastic food containers is the most widely used. Due to the modification of the resin and the improvement of the processing technology, the application of PP has increased year by year.

主要原料及典型配方Main raw materials and typical formula

( l )聚乙烯 普通选用熔体指数为 l ~ 6 的聚乙烯树脂。
Polyethylene resin with L ~ 6 melt index.
( 2 )聚丙烯 普通选网熔体指数为 2 一 4 的聚丙烯树脂。
Polypropylene, polypropylene, 4, 2.
( 3 )聚苯乙烯 普通选用通用型或抗冲型的注射级聚苯乙烯树脂。
Polystyrene resin with general purpose or anti punching type for      polystyrene.
( 4 )聚氯乙烯硬质透明瓶配方 。
Rigid PVC transparent bottle formula.
塑料桶生产的主要设备及特性Main equipment and characteristics of plastic bucket

( 1 )挤出机与机头 与普通挤-吹法的设备根本相同。
The extruder and the die are basically the same as the common extrusion blowing method.
( 2 )型坯处置安装 由挤出机挤出的管状型坯,要经过该安装停止切断、底部熔合与颈部加工,制成试管状有底型坯。
Installation of parison disposal by extruding a tubular billet, after the installation of the stop cut, at the bottom of the fusion and neck processing, made of tube shaped bottom of the parison.
( 3 )型坯加热安装 型坯加热安装有烘箱、加热套筒、加热通道等多种,加热方式可用电加热或红外线加热。但加热安装要能调温并平衡地加热,使型坯内外温差尽量减小。
The heating installation of the heating installation of the heating and heating installation of the heating installation is provided with an oven, a heating sleeve, a heating channel, etc., and the heating mode can be heated by electric heating or infrared heating.
( 4 )拉伸安装 有拉伸芯棒和拉伸夹具两种。
nstallation of the mandrel and the tensile tensile tensile fixture two.
① 拉伸芯棒 拉伸芯棒从型坯上部插入,在液压作用下顶住型坯底部,停止纵向拉伸,然后芯棒上的气孔通入紧缩空气吹胀,停止径向拉伸。多数拉伸成型都采用这种拉伸安装。
Drawing mandrel  Drawing mandrel is inserted from the upper part of the type blank, in under the action of hydraulic withstand parison bottom, stop the longitudinal tensile, and the mandrel air vent into the compressed air blown, stop the radial tensile. Most stretch forming is used in this kind of tension installation.
② 拉伸夹具 拉伸夹具从外部夹往管状型坯的两端,在液压作用下停止纵向拉伸,然后再吹胀停止径向拉伸。颈部与底部都有飞边需求修整,飞边经破碎可回收应用。
Tension clamp  The tension clamp is clamped from the outside to the two ends of the tubular shaped blank, and the longitudinal tension is stopped under the action of hydraulic pressure, and then the radial tension is stopped. At the neck and at the bottom, there is a need to trim the fly edge.
( 5 )挤-拉-吹专用成型机 国外有多种型式与规格的挤-拉-吹专用成型机,目前国内尚无此专用设备
Squeeze – pull – blow molding machine   Abroad there are a variety of types and specifications of the squeeze – pull – blow molding machine, there is no domestic special equipment
塑料桶生产工艺Plastic barrel production process

注-吹成型实践上是由注塑型坯和吹塑制品两个过程组成,而注塑型坯又是整个消费过程的关键。
Injection blow molding is made up of two processes of injection molding and blow molding products, and the injection molding process is the key to the whole process of consumption.
( 1 )注塑型坯的工艺控制Process control of injection molding

① 注塑温度 注射温度与原资料的种类和特性,注塑机的类型及制品厚度等要素有关。对结晶性树脂,如聚乙烯、聚丙烯等,注射温度应高于其熔点。对无定形聚合物,如聚苯乙烯、聚氯乙烯,注射温度要高于其粘流温度。熔体批数低的树脂比熔体指数高的树脂注射温度要高一些。运用柱塞式注塑机比螺杆式注塑机加工温度要高一些。薄壁型坯比厚壁型坯所需求的注射温度高。普通聚苯乙烯的注射温度为 140℃ ~ 240℃ ,聚乙烯为 150℃ ~ 280℃ ,聚丙烯为 205℃ ~ 285℃ ,聚氯乙烯为 160℃ ~ 190℃ 。注射模具温度普通为 40℃ ~ 80℃ 。
Injection temperature   Injection temperature and the types and characteristics of raw materials, the type of injection molding machine and the thickness of the products, etc.. For crystalline resin, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, injection temperature should be higher than its melting point. For amorphous polymers, such as polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride, the injection temperature is higher than the viscosity of the polymer. The resin with a low number of melt batches is higher than that of the melt index. The use of plunger type injection molding machine than the screw type injection molding machine processing temperature is higher. The high injection temperature of the thin wall blank is higher than that of the thick wall slab. The injection temperature of the ordinary polystyrene is 140 degrees Celsius to 240 degrees Celsius, the polyethylene is 150 to 280 degrees Celsius, the polypropylene is 205 to 285 degrees Celsius, and the polyvinyl chloride is 160 to 190 degrees Celsius. Injection mold temperature is 40 C to 80 C.
② 注射压力 普通树脂的熔体指数低、型坯壁薄,请求注射压力较高,反之较低。柱塞式注塑机比螺杆式注塑机需求的压力高。在保证产质量量的状况下,尽可能采用较低的注射压力。普通聚苯乙烯的注射压力为 58.8 ~ 107.9MPa ,聚乙烯为 58.8 ~ 98.06MPa ,聚丙烯为 54.9 ~ 98.06MPa ,聚氯乙烯为 78.4 ~ 127.5MPa 。

Injection pressure  The melt index of the common resin is low, the shape of the blank wall is thin, the pressure of the injection is higher, and the lower the pressure is relatively low. Plunger type injection molding machine than the screw type injection molding machine high pressure. Under the condition of ensuring the quality of production, as far as possible, the use of lower injection pressure. The injection pressure of ordinary polystyrene is 58.8 ~ 107.9MPa, the PE is 58.8 ~ 98.06MPa, the polypropylene is 54.9 ~ 98.06MPa, and the polyvinyl chloride is 78.4 ~ 127.5MPa.

( 2 )吹塑的工艺控制与挤-吹成型的吹塑工艺根本相同。
Process control of blow molding and extrusion blow molding process is the same
主要设备及特性Main equipment and characteristics

( 1 )型坯注射机 与普通注塑机的结构根本相同,但注射压力较低,螺杆长径比可小一些,紧缩比也不宜过大。
Injection molding machine  With ordinary injection molding machine structure are basically the same, but lower injection pressure, screw length diameter ratio of the smaller, tightening than also shoulds not be too big.
( 2 )模具 包括注射模具与吹塑模具。注塑型坯的模具与普通注塑模具的资料与加工请求根本相同,但芯模必需是中空的,以便通入紧缩空气。吹塑模具与挤-吹成型模具根本相同。
mould   Including injection mold and blow mold. The information of the injection mould and the common injection mold is the same as the processing request, but the core must be hollow so that the air can be compressed into the air. Blow mould and extrusion blow molding die is the same.
( 3 )脱模安装 与挤-吹成型不同,吹塑过程完成后,翻开吹塑模具,将带着成型制品的芯模送至脱膜安装,由脱模板将制品与芯模分开。
Stripping installation   And extrusion blow molding is different, blow molding process is completed, open blow mold, will be with molded products to the core die to be sent to the installation, from the template will be separated from the mold and core modules.
产品规范Product specification

注射-吹塑塑料瓶目前尚无国标和部标,产品规范可参照聚乙烯吹塑桶规范,并作必要的修正。但同一种原料的注-吹中空容器比挤-吹中空容器性能优秀。
Injection blow plastic bottles there is no national standards and ministerial standards, product specifications can refer to polyethylene blow moulding barrel specification and make necessary corrections. But in the same kind of raw material, the performance of the injection blowing hollow container is better than that of the extrusion blow hollow container.

大型中空容器普通指容积在 50L 以上的各种塑制桶体、罐体、贮槽、箱体等大型中空制品。原料以聚乙烯树脂为主,成型工艺主要为挤出-吹塑法和旋转成型法。
A large hollow container generally refers to the volume of various plastic barrels in more than 50L of body, tank, storage tank, tank and other large hollow products. The main material of the raw material is polyethylene resin, and the molding process is extrusion blow molding method and rotary molding method.
挤出-吹塑大型容器的成型办法与塑料桶根本相同,只在原料与设备方面略有区别。
Extrusion blow molding of large containers is the same as the plastic bucket, only a slight difference in raw materials and equipment.
主要原料请求 消费塑料桶普通以低密度聚乙烯树脂或高、低密度聚乙烯树脂混合料为主,而消费大型容器则以高密度聚乙烯和高分子量聚乙烯树脂为主。
Main raw material request   Consumption of plastic barrels of ordinary low density polyethylene resin or high, low density polyethylene resin mixture mainly, and the consumption of large containers, high density polyethylene and high molecular weight polyethylene resin.
主要设备及特性 消费大型容器的挤出机和吹塑安装均与消费塑料桶的设备相同,但应在挤出机料筒与机头之间增设储料器。由于大型制品的型坯亦很大,假如由挤出机迟缓地挤出,型坯则会呈现自重惹起的严重垂伸现象,形成制品纵向壁厚不匀。同时因挤出时间长,使型坯因冷却而温渡过低,也会影响吹塑质量。增设储料器安装后,挤出机将熔融物料连续挤入储料器,当贮存的物料到达一定量时,即由压料安装快速将物料一次压出,构成厚度平均、温度恰当的型坯。因而增设储料器不只能减少型坯垂伸、坚持型坯温度,还可用较小的挤出机消费大型的制品。
Main equipment and characteristics   The consumption of large container extrusion blow molding machine and installation and equipment of the consumption of plastic barrels of the same, but should be in the extrusion machine barrel and the head is additionally arranged between the stocker. Because the large size of the product is also very large, if the extruder is slow to extrusion, the shape of the slab will be a serious cause of the weight of the vertical extension phenomenon, the formation of the vertical wall thickness of the product is not uniform. At the same time, because of long extrusion time, so that the type of billet due to cooling and warm crossing is too low, it will affect the quality of blow molding. Added stocker after installation, extruding machine, the molten material continuous to squeeze into the reservoir feeder, when storage material reaches a certain amount, namely pressure feeding installation fast material extrusion, average thickness, temperature appropriate parison. Thus additional stocker can not only reduce the parison vertical extension, adhere to the parison temperature, can use smaller extruder products of large consumption.

塑料桶产品标准Plastic barrel product standard

挤出-吹塑大型中空容器目前尚无国、部标准,可参照 GB 13508 一 92 聚乙烯吹塑桶标准作必要的修正。 PETP 软饮料瓶执行 QB1868 一 93 标准。
Extrusion blow molding large hollow containers at present there is no country, the Department of standards, can refer to GB 13508 a 92 polyethylene blow molding barrels standard for the necessary amendments. PETP soft drink bottles to perform QB1868 a 93 standard.

挤出-拉伸-吹塑(简称挤-拉-吹) 塑料瓶是先通过挤出法将树脂制成管状型坯,再把底部熔合形成有底型坯,然后将型坯处理至所用塑料的理想拉伸温度,经内部(拉伸芯棒)或外部(拉伸夹具)的机械力作用进行纵向拉伸,同时或稍后经压缩空气吹胀进行径向拉伸而制得的中空制品。塑料经过双轴拉伸后分子重新定向,因此制品的冲击韧性、低温强度、透明度、表面光泽度、刚性及阻隔性能等都有了明显的改善和提高。此外,经过拉伸后制品的壁厚减薄,可以节省原料、降低成本。目前用于生产挤-拉-吹中空容器的塑料主要是聚氯乙烯和聚丙烯、制品以小型,薄壁的瓶体为主,用于食品、饮料、化妆品、日化产品等的包装。
Extrusion stretch blow molding (abbreviated as extrusion blow)  Plastic bottle is first by extrusion method tubular preforms made of resin, and the bottom of the parison formation of the bottom of the fusion, and the parison processing to the ideal tensile temperature of plastic. The mechanical force of the internal (drawing mandrel) or external (tensile fixture) of the longitudinal tensile and at the same time or later by compressed air blown radial stretching of the hollow products. After biaxial stretching, the plastic is re oriented, so the impact toughness, low temperature strength, transparency, surface gloss, rigidity and barrier properties are obviously improved and improved. In addition, the thickness of the wall of the product after stretching can be reduced, which can save the material and reduce the cost. Currently used for production push pull blowing plastic hollow container is mainly PVC and PP, products mainly to small, thin-walled bottle for packaging of food, beverages, cosmetics, daily chemical products and so on.
挤拉-吹又分为一步法和二步法两种。一步法的型坯制造、拉伸、吹塑在一台设备中连续进行,又称热坯法。二步法的型坯制造在时间、位置和设备上,均与加热、拉伸、吹塑分开进行,又称为冷坯法。
Squeeze – blowing is divided into one – step and two – step two. One step process of making, drawing, blow molding in one device for continuous, also known as hot billet method. Two – step process in the production of the time, location and equipment, and heating, stretching, blow molding separately, also known as cold billet method.
主要原料及典型配方 对聚丙烯树脂的要求及聚氯乙烯容器的配方,均与挤出-吹塑容器基本相同。
Main raw materials and typical formula   The requirements for polypropylene resin and the formulation of the PVC container are all the same as that of the extrusion blow molded containers.
消费工艺 挤-拉-吹法在挤出型坯与吹塑的工艺控制上,和挤-吹法根本相同。下面重点引见拉伸的工艺控制。
Consumption technology   Squeeze – pull – blow method in the extrusion and blow molding process control, and extrusion blow method is the same. The following focus on the process of drawing control.
( 1 )拉伸温度 控制适合的拉伸温度是停止双轴拉伸的关键,否则将起不到使塑料分子重新定向排列的目的。对非结晶性的聚氯乙烯来说,如采用一步法,型坯即可从挤出时的 190℃ ~ 200℃ 宜接冷却到 90℃ ~ 100℃ ,停止拉伸与吹塑。这时比它的玻璃化温度高出 10℃ ~ 20℃ ,是最理想的拉伸温度。对结晶性的聚丙烯来说,如采用一步法,型坯要借助有效的冷却。
Stretching temperature  The control of suitable stretching temperature is the key to stop the biaxial tension, otherwise it will not be the purpose of the re orientation of plastic molecules. For the non crystalline polyvinyl chloride, such as the use of one step, the billet can be extruded from 190 to 200 degrees Celsius to 90 degrees Celsius to be cooled to 100 degrees Celsius to degrees Celsius, stop stretching and blow. At this time than the glass temperature of 10 degrees Celsius to 20 degrees Celsius, is the most ideal drawing temperature. For the crystallization of polypropylene, such as the use of one step, the shape of the billet to the aid of effective cooling.
从挤出时的 210℃ ~ 230℃ 疾速冷却至 90℃ ~ 105℃ 之间的结晶温度,抑止球晶的构成,然后再加热到玻璃化温度与熔点温度之间的 150℃ ~ 160℃ 停止双轴拉伸。不管聚氯乙烯还是聚丙烯,假如采用二步法,都需求对事前制成的型坯重新加热到各自的拉伸温度,再停止拉伸和吹塑。
From extrusion of 210 DEG C to 230 DEG C, cooled quickly to 90 DEG C ~ 105 DEG C between the crystallization temperature, restrain the spherulites, and then heated to between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of 150 DEG C to 160 DEG C to stop the biaxial tensile. Whether polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene, if the use of the two step, the need for pre made to re heating of the preform to the respective tensile temperature, and then stop stretching and blow.
( 2 )拉伸倍率 除了拉伸温度等条件外,双轴拉伸制品的分子定向状态是由拉伸倍率决议的,因而拉伸倍率决议着制品性能的改良。拉伸倍率是拉伸比与吹胀比的乘积,拉伸比是制品长度与型坯长度之比,也就是纵向拉伸率。吹胀比是制品最大直径与型坯直径之比,也就是径向拉伸率。拉伸倍率过低,起不到分子重新定向和改善制品性能的作用。拉伸倍率过高,则会惹起资料损坯并使加工条件不易控制。普通聚氯乙烯的拉伸倍率取 4 ~ 6 ,聚丙烯取 6 ~ 10 。

draft ratio  In addition to the conditions of tensile temperature, the molecular orientation state of the biaxial tension product is determined by the stretching ratio, and the drawing rate is determined to improve the performance of the product. The drawing ratio is the product of the ratio of the tension to the blowing ratio, the ratio of the length to the length of the billet, and the ratio of the length to the length of the billet. Blowing ratio is the ratio of the maximum diameter of the product and the diameter of the blank, which is the radial tensile rate. Low drawing ratio is too low to play the role of molecular reorientation and improve the performance of products. The drawing ratio is too high, it will cause the material damage and make the processing condition is not easy to control. The drawing ratio of ordinary polyvinyl chloride was 4 ~ 6, and the polypropylene was 6 ~ 10.